Book | 550bc

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February 2023
First Edition of 550
Hardcover with foil-stamped text all-around
Duotone printed with black and PANTONE Cool Gray 7 C
136 pages, 68 images
Dimensions: 26 x 20 cm


From freelance hit squads and cocaine collectors breaking into harbors to grenades used for intimidation and a soundproof torture container.

Cocaine ripdeals and other conflicts caused a series of gangland killings among the new generation of Dutch multi-ethnic organized crime networks.

In this underworld war, many victims are errand boys — followers who have carried out an assignment for money or to belong. With 1 kilogram going for up to 40.000 euros on the street, the profits from smuggling cocaine have fueled the brutality.

For many immigrant youths in the Netherlands who feel marginalized and rejected by society, turning to organized crime can provide a sense of belonging. From their perspective, here, they are not the victim but the aggressor. This is why the underworld, with its own rules and opportunity to make a lot of money, gets a significant following. They are willing to take on various high-risk jobs with the ambition of climbing the ladder within the underworld hierarchy.

The author used a wide variety of sources to assemble a new seamless photo series portraying the Dutch underworld.

Nobody’s identity is revealed in this book. No faces are shown and no names nor cases are mentioned.

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